Palmarès Variations

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Impossible à joindre depuis le deux novembre dernier; les appels tombent sur une bande musicale. Domestic offtake further reduced silver in circulation, as the improving fortunes of the merchant class led to increased demand for tablewares. Je vous en dirai plus par la suite suivant le résultat des événements. Site fiable et de qualité, TopOption est un broker réglementé et sérieux, les investissements sont protégés. Personne ne répond au tel ni à ses mails.

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The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into pence (singular: penny, abbreviated: p).

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CFD sur les énergies Pétrole, gaz et les énergies principales. Série estivale de séminaires terminée avec succès en Thaïlande. Hence, large payments came to be reckoned in "pounds of sterlings," a phrase later shortened However, the perceived narrow window of the issuance of this coin, and the fact that coin designs changed frequently in the period in question, led Philip Grierson to reject this in favour of a more complex theory.

Another argument that the Hanseatic League was the origin for both the origin of its definition and manufacture, and in its name is that the German name for the Baltic is "Ost See", or "East Sea", and from this the Baltic merchants were called "Osterlings", or "Easterlings".

For further discussion of the etymology of "sterling", see sterling silver. The Crown dependencies use their own non-ISO codes: Stocks are often traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling , GBX sometimes GBp , when listing stock prices.

A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid , which is singular and plural, except in the common phrase "Quids in! Since decimalisation in see Decimal Day , the pound has been divided into pence until described on the coinage as "new pence". This also helped to distinguish between new and old pence amounts during the changeover to the decimal system.

A decimal halfpenny was issued until , but was removed due to having a higher cost to manufacture than its face value. Before decimalisation, the pound was divided into 20 shillings and each shilling into 12 pence , making pence to the pound. The symbol for the shilling was " s. The symbol for the penny was " d. Various coin denominations had, and in some cases continue to have, special names—such as crown , farthing , sovereign and guinea.

See Coins of the pound sterling and List of British coins and banknotes for details. Silver coins were replaced by those in cupro-nickel in , and by the s the silver coins were rarely seen. The pound sterling is the world's oldest currency still in use. The pound was a unit of account in Anglo-Saxon England, equal to silver pennies and equivalent to one pound weight of silver.

It evolved into the modern British currency , the pound sterling. The origins of sterling lie in the reign of King Offa of Mercia — , who introduced the silver penny. It copied the denarius of the new currency system of Charlemagne 's Frankish Empire. As in the Carolingian system, pennies weighed 1 pound corresponding to Charlemagne's libra , with the shilling corresponding to Charlemagne's solidus and equal to 12d.

At the time of the penny's introduction, it weighed The early pennies were struck from fine silver as pure as was available. However, in , a new coinage was introduced by King Henry II known as the Tealby penny which was struck from 0. This became the standard until the 20th century and is today known as sterling silver , named after its association with the currency.

The English currency was almost exclusively silver until , when the gold noble was successfully introduced into circulation. However, silver remained the legal basis for sterling until During the time of Henry III , the pound sterling equalled the tower weight pound. In the reign of Henry IV — , the penny was reduced in weight to 15 grains 0.

In , a silver coinage was issued containing just one-third silver and two-thirds copper—equating to. The result was a coin copper in appearance but relatively pale in colour.

In , a new silver coinage was introduced, struck in sterling silver. However, the penny's weight was reduced to 8 grains 0. In , a new gold coinage was introduced based on the 22 carat fine guinea. In line with Gresham's Law , British merchants sent silver abroad in payments whilst goods for export were paid for with gold. As a consequence of these flows of silver out and gold in, Great Britain was effectively on a gold standard. Trade with China aggravated this outflow, as the Chinese refused to accept anything but silver in payment for exports.

From the midth century, around 28, metric tons 27, imperial tons of silver were received by China, principally from European powers, in exchange for Chinese tea and other goods.

In order to trade with China, Great Britain had first to trade with the other European nations to receive silver, which led to the East India Company redressing this trade imbalance through the indirect sale of opium to the Chinese. Domestic offtake further reduced silver in circulation, as the improving fortunes of the merchant class led to increased demand for tablewares.

Silversmiths had always regarded coinage as a source of raw material, already verified for fineness by the government. As a result, sterling coins were being melted and fashioned into sterling silverware at an accelerating rate.

A Act of Parliament tried to stem this tide by raising the minimum acceptable fineness on wrought plate from sterling's Silverware made purely from melted coins would be found wanting when the silversmith took his wares to the Assay Office , thus discouraging the melting of coins. The Bank of England was founded in , followed by the Bank of Scotland a year later. Both began to issue paper money.

In accordance with the Treaty of Union , the currency of Great Britain was sterling, with the pound Scots soon being replaced by sterling at the pegged value. However, the Irish pound continued to exist and was not replaced by sterling until January The conversion rate had long been thirteen Irish pounds to twelve pounds sterling. The Irish pound was readopted in , six years after the Anglo-Irish Treaty restored Irish independence.

Sterling circulated in much of the British Empire. In some parts, it was used alongside local currencies. For example, the gold sovereign was legal tender in Canada despite the use of the Canadian dollar. Several colonies and dominions adopted the pound as their own currency. Some of these retained parity with sterling throughout their existence e. These currencies and others tied to sterling constituted the sterling area. The original English colonies on mainland North America were not party to the sterling area because the above-mentioned silver shortage in England coincided with these colonies' formative years.

As a result of equitable trade and rather less equitable piracy , the Spanish milled dollar became the most common coin within the English colonies. During the American war of independence and the Napoleonic wars , Bank of England notes were legal tender , and their value floated relative to gold.

The Bank also issued silver tokens to alleviate the shortage of silver coins. In , the sovereign was introduced, valued at 20 shillings. By the 19th century the pound sterling was widely accepted outside Britain. The American Nellie Bly carried Bank of England notes on her — trip around the world in 72 days.

As a consequence, conversion rates between different currencies could be determined simply from the respective gold standards. The pound sterling was equal to 4. After the International Monetary Conference of in Paris, the possibility of the UK joining the Latin Monetary Union was discussed, and a Royal Commission on International Coinage examined the issues, [32] resulting in a decision against joining monetary union.

The gold standard was suspended at the outbreak of the war in , with Bank of England and Treasury notes becoming legal tender. But after the end of the war, the country was indebted: In , an agreement with the US pegged the pound to the U. Under continuing economic pressure, and despite months of denials that it would do so, on 19 September the government devalued the pound by In , , and , the pound came under renewed pressure, as speculators were selling pounds for dollars.

In summer , with the value of the pound falling in the currency markets, exchange controls were tightened by the Wilson government. The pound was devalued by Until decimalisation, amounts were stated in pounds, shillings, and pence, with various widely understood notations. It was customary to specify some prices for example professional fees and auction prices for works of art in guineas one guinea was 21 shillings although guinea coins were no longer in use. Formal parliamentary proposals to decimalise sterling were first made in when Sir John Wrottesley , MP for Staffordshire , asked in the British House of Commons whether consideration had been given to decimalising the currency.

However, full decimalisation was resisted, although the florin coin, re-designated as ten new pence , survived the transfer to a full decimal system in , with examples surviving in British coinage until John Benjamin Smith , MP for Stirling Burghs , raised the issue of full decimalisation again in Parliament in , [42] resulting in the Chancellor of the Exchequer, William Gladstone , announcing soon afterwards that "the great question of a decimal coinage" was "now under serious consideration".

However, the pound sterling was decimalised in various British colonial territories before the United Kingdom and in several cases in line with William Brown's proposal that the pound be divided into 1, parts, called mils. These included Hong Kong from to ; [47] Cyprus from until and continued on the island as the division of the Cypriot pound until ; and the Palestine Mandate from until Towards the end of the Second World War, various attempts to decimalise the pound sterling in the United Kingdom were made [ citation needed ].

Later, in , the British government decided to include in the Queen's Speech a plan to convert the pound into a decimal currency. The word "new" was omitted from coins minted after With the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system , the pound floated from August onwards. The sterling area effectively ended at this time, when the majority of its members also chose to float freely against the pound and the dollar. James Callaghan became Prime Minister in He was immediately told the economy was facing huge problems, according to documents released in by the National Archives.

It was nice knowing you". The Conservative Party was elected to office in , on a programme of fiscal austerity. The high exchange rate was widely blamed for the deep recession of In , Margaret Thatcher 's Chancellor of the Exchequer , Nigel Lawson , decided that the pound should "shadow" the West German Deutsche Mark DM , with the unintended result of a rapid rise in inflation as the economy boomed due to low interest rates.

For ideological reasons, the Conservative Government declined to use alternative mechanisms to control the explosion of credit. Following German reunification in , the reverse held true, as high German borrowing costs to fund Eastern reconstruction, exacerbated by the political decision to convert the Ostmark to the DM on a 1: However, the country was forced to withdraw from the system on " Black Wednesday " 16 September as Britain's economic performance made the exchange rate unsustainable.

The exchange rate fell to DM2. In , the newly elected Labour government handed over day-to-day control of interest rates to the Bank of England a policy that had originally been advocated by the Liberal Democrats. On 17 April , annual CPI inflation was reported at 3.